How hard has it been for the Getty to get back on its feet after the financial controversies, the acquisition scandal and the sudden death of Getty Trust CEO James Wood?
Your book "Who Owns Antiquity?" offers a nuanced answer to those who want to press claims for artworks in collections like the Getty's.
I'm committed to the preservation and presentation of what I hold to be humanity's common artistic legacy. I question the premise [of] modern political jurisdictions over bits of geography in or on which one finds cultural [art] forms -- ancient cultural forms in particular. Works of art have never known boundaries. And there is no national art; there is art that has been identified by others to be national; scholars might [talk about] Italian painting or French painting. Or governments might want to claim an essentialized national identity [for] their works of art; but every identity, human or artistic, is hybrid.
I want to encourage people's understanding of the truth about culture but also for them to have access to things distant in time and space, [to] learn about the diversity of the world's cultural development. Encyclopedic museums do two things, especially in big cities: Those cities are made up of populations of the world, who can see works of art that in some way [are] part of their identity. But they can also be introduced to things that allow them to think [of] a larger sense of humanity. The encyclopedic museum encourages curiosity, which breeds understanding, which breeds tolerance.
You don't necessarily agree with some of the new laws.
People have said, "What right do you have to be critical of these foreign ownership laws?" I say every nation through diplomacy can be critical of other nations, whether [it's] how the value of a currency is kept artificially low, [or] that they suppress freedom of dissent. So it's perfectly reasonable to tell other countries [that] we don't think that law needs to be as strict; that there ought to be some way of loosening it without putting at risk the integrity of the archaeological record.
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But don't non- la-ed-getty-20111113 essentially say you've still got too much of the good stuff.
We have to think about why the encyclopedic museum is principally in the West, and the reason is that's where the Enlightenment left its mark, with this curiosity about the world generally, the understanding that by bringing together representative examples of the world's cultures we derive truths from them, and then test those truths with disinterested critical inquiry and ultimately improve the lot of humanity.
But first one has to be curious about the world, and there are parts of the world that are not curious about the world's artistic legacy.
If you believe in the encyclopedic museum and its promise, and I do, then you want to protect them where they are currently and encourage them where they are not yet. It means establishing trustful relationships. This is one of the great things the Getty does, and a great reason why I've come to the Getty. I wouldn't have left a museum I loved [just] to go to another museum. I came to the Getty for all it does: the foundation, the conservation, the research institute.
What is going on in the lawsuit over the medieval Armenian manuscript pages that an Armenian church group here contends were illegally obtained?
They're concordances, like a table of contents for sections of the Bible. They were acquired by the Getty in 1994; they are known to have been published since 1945 and known to have been the property of an Armenian family since the 1920s. We claim therefore that [the provenance was] known to church authorities all this time, so we claim clear title to these four sheets of manuscripts, bringing them into a collection [that includes] contributions of Armenian manuscript painters, not to mention having them here to be enjoyed by the great Armenian population of Southern California. We said look at the legal principle of statute of limitations; there's no case here. The judge said we'd rather have you mediate with the claimant, so we are in the process of mediation.
The Getty is in some ways so different from where you've been before.
In Chicago I was in charge of the museum. Here I'm in charge of the trust itself. My professional career, with the exception of the Art Institute, has been in universities. It feels much more like that here; the four programs [museums, research, conservation and foundation] are like four schools of a university.
Then is it hard to move further from art and acquisitions into a more managerial role?
The way I've been a museum director, my job has always been one of helping find the resources to help [the curators] live out their dreams. What has been of greatest delight is learning from people who know more than you and then the process of making the acquisition. So I'm making acquisitions here no differently; which is to say, it all generates from the curators.
How different is the L.A. museum consumer?